Logo: Gliding mammals of the world

The world’s gliding mammals are an extraordinary group of animals that have the ability to glide from tree to tree with seemingly effortless grace. There are more than 60 species of gliding mammals including the flying squirrels from Europe and North America, the scaly-tailed flying squirrels from central Africa and the gliding possums of Australia and New Guinea.

Southern Flying Squirrel

Southern Flying Squirrel / Glaucomys volans
Glaucomys volans

Order: Rodentia
Family: Sciuridae, Pteromyini

Description: Looks superficially similar to the Northern Flying Squirrel but is less robust and has a smaller body. The upper parts of its body have pinkishcinnamon, brownish or yellowish-brown fur according to season and subspecies.

The sides of its face are smoky grey, often washed with grey or yellowish. Its tail above is a variable brown, dark grey or drab, while below it varies from pinkish-cinnamon to pinkish-buff. Its underparts are white or creamy white, often with cinnamon or pinkish-buff sides, with hairs that are white or whitish at base, except on its gliding membrane and hind legs where they are lead-grey at the base.

Distribution: Occurs primarily in central and southern North America, extending as far south as Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. Throughout its distribution it generally inhabits mature deciduous forests, although it may be found in coniferous forests.

Reproduction: Females are polyestrous, usually producing two litters per year. Mating in northern latitudes occurs from February or early March with a peak of litters in March/April. A second breeding season occurs in June/July with a peak of litters in August. Litters are typically of two or three individuals but can range from one to six.

A study in Florida found that litters are born from late August to early January, and there was only one possible case of a female producing two litters in a year. Therefore, there appears to be a shift in breeding season from a spring—autumn breeding in northern latitudes, to late summer—winter in the southern part of its range.

Diet: Consists mainly of seeds, nuts and underground truffles, but includes a wide variety of food sources such as corn, birds, bird eggs, berries, acorns, birch catkins, beetles and insects. It also stores food such as acorns for use during winter.

Ecology: Appears to choose mature pine-hardwood forest (where available) for nesting, constructing cavity nests both outside and inside the tree, including standing dead trees. In Florida, nests have also been observed 30 centimetres below ground, under a stump.

The home ranges of males are nearly twice that of females with home ranges of 1.2–16.0 to 1.95–5.9 hectares respectively. During winter when food is scarce, it conserves energy by forming aggregations in nestlined cavities in trees.

Status: Least Concern.

Note: Following a series of warm winters, the Southern Flying Squirrel in Ontario rapidly expanded its northern range limit, resulting in increased sympatry with the closely related Northern Flying Squirrel.

Hybridisation has occurred and appears to be a result of a range expansion induced by climate change. In 1977–1980, an epidemic of typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii) occurred throughout Virginia, West Virginia and North Carolina. The Southern Flying Squirrel acted as a reservoir for the disease.

Southern Flying Squirrel / Glaucomys volans
Southern Flying Squirrel
Glaucomys volans
Distribution: Southern Flying Squirrel
HB117–138 mm
TL80–120 mm
HF25–31 mm
M42–141 g

Other species:


Random species

Black Flying Squirrel / Aeromys tephromelas

Black Flying Squirrel
Aeromys tephromelas

Red-cheeked Flying Squirrel / Hylopetes spadiceus

Red-cheeked Flying Squirrel
Hylopetes spadiceus

Whiskered Flying Squirrel / Petinomys genibarbis

Whiskered Flying Squirrel
Petinomys genibarbis

Smoky Flying Squirrel / Pteromyscus pulverulentus

Smoky Flying Squirrel
Pteromyscus pulverulentus


Gliding Mammals of the World provides, for the first time, a synthesis of all that is known about the biology of these intriguing mammals. It includes a brief description of each species, together with a distribution map and a beautiful full-color painting.

An introduction outlines the origins and biogeography of each group of gliding mammals and examines the incredible adaptations that allow them to launch themselves and glide from tree to tree.